Fylogenetické aspekty lidské lokomoce



Basis and material: Human locomotion is historically determined by evolution of terrestrial vertebrates. Human locomotion has two propulsion generators at disposal pelvic girdle and arm girdle. Most natural motion of pelvic girdle is free bipedal gait and endurance run. This is relatively young evolution event, 6-4 million years old (in run 2 million years old), connected with verticalisation of primates developing toward Homo species. Gait is also most common form of human locomotion. Arm girdle has its recent motion programme approximately 375 million years old. Il is not developed in human motion ontogenesis, while the evolutionary young locomotion programme of pelvic girdle is the main content of postural motion ontogenesis of the first year of life. Arm girdle locomotion is from time and space aspect best presented by spontaneous creeping or reflex creeping according to Vojta. In adulthood it can be observed in climbing the ladder, steep hills or in broad scale of sport and recreation activities. Primary function of arm girdle and upper limbs in humans is no longer locomotion, but ability to grip and manipulate with objects; thereby the upper limbs become communication organ with environment and perform "manipulation motion". This function probably played a decisive role in brain capacity increase of predecessors and later in members of Homo species on the way of their humanisation. Conclusion: This contribution is processed based on many years of experimental researches and work of scientific monograph focused on phytogeny of human locomotion. Listing of developmental connections should help the holistic view of human posture and locomotion in medical rehabilitation, orthopaedics, fitness, sport training, motion recreation and connected fields of anthropology.